Anachronism | 100 Literary Terms| [ 1]

Anachronism 
Greek Word - Anachronous 
meaning - against time

" This is an error in chronology in a literary piece."
Lets see an example to make it clear 

here is the most famous example of ANACHRONISM
ERROR by Shakespeare in Julius Caeser
Brutus: " Peace! Count the clock."
Cassius: "The clock has stricken three"
 
So, can you tell me why anachronism occurred ?
Because of the word THE CLOCK
 
Mechanical clock wasn't invented at the point of time
when Brutus was talking to Cassius . So, here is error and
error is called ???????????      - Anachronism
 Now watch the video below to make your concept clear
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English Renaissance



Let's talk about Renaissance....
By the way if you don't know . Let's see first some basic facts.
Ranaissance was a cultural and artistic movement .
It was between - the late 15th century to early 17th Century .
BIRTH PLACE OF RENAISSANCE
It started in Italy in the late 14th century.
some important events
1- with Battle of Bosworth Field ended the Wars of the Roses

2- it inaugurated the Tudor Dynasty.
But remember The English renaissance is different from the Italian Renaissance
why ? How ?
Because of the dominant part
so , what was the dominant part ?????

Literature and music - in eng. Renaissance
Visual arts -in Italian Rnaisance.
now the question is
when it really started and ended
literary historians say , it started in 1520s and continued nearly 1620.
now its hight time we should talk about a guy named
Shakespeare - 
chief figure of the English Renaissance.
why? why? akhir kyu?
He wrote so many plays , and sonnets and he was a humanists .
isnt it enough.

Renaissance spread because of one thing more ..
Printing press - nobody was writing with hands . now they can print , it was the mid of 16th century.
 How can we forget the sweet guy Edmund spencer - He came with his FAERIE QUEENE
you can watch this short vid for some extra bits of knowledge



what else can you keep in mind ???
1-DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE FROM THE CATHOLIC CHURCH.
2- Technological advances and sailing and cartography.
Here are the people because of them you have great literature to read
and enjoy, and to remember ( for exams )
1- Christopher Marlowe
2- Shakespeare
3- Ben Jonson
4-Thomas moore
5 Roger Ascham
one fact about this CHAM you must remember is , He trained Elizabeth
and she became the product of Renaissance Humanism .

You know who wrote  the poem On Monseiur's Departure????
yes .... Elizabeth herself .
some other things happened in this period
Book of common prayer - published (1549)
while reading this topic keep in mind the time period
1520 to 1620
Do you know when we got Authorised version of bible came ?
1611 , yes this is the year . it is also called " King James Version"
let me tell you all the Tudor monarchs were highly educated.
Now , let's talk about a little visual arts
They didnt care much but some artist were imported to create some pieces of arts.
some of them were
1- Hans Holbein.
2- Lucas Horenbout
later ,
Nicolas Hilliard and Isaac Oliver produced some fine works .

Finally let me tell you .
The name " the renaissance " is our invention.
and remember this title to the period has been popularized by
by historian Jacob Burckhardt in 19th century.
Some historians questioned the fact that
why ???? we call only this period RENAISSANCE
THEY SAY-
some guys worked really hard even before.
like ??
Chaucer - popularized english as a medium
He translated works by BOCCACCIO AND PETRACH into English ( yes it was middle english though)
how can we forget
William Langland - Piers Plowman
John Gower-
Thomas Malory - Le Morte D'Arthur)
John Lydgate-
Thomas Hocclevee
yes , they really deserve this name Renaissance and so some scholars find
the period questionable.
but let them discuss :-)
for us this is period of renaissance
from the late 15th to the early 17th century .
But remember these names because these all did really hard work to make
it a great time to rember .
1- Francis Bacon
2- francis Beaumont
3- Thomas Campion
4- George Chapman
5- Francis Hubert
6- Thomas Dekker
7- John Donne
8- John Fletcher
9 - john ford
10- Ben Johnson
11- Thomas Kyd
12- Christopher Marlowe
13- Phillip massinger
14- Thomas Middleton
15- Thomas More
16- Thomas nash
17- William shakespeare
18- sidney 19 - spenser 20- tyndale 21- Wyatt
WARNING : LITERARY DISCUSSION WILL NEVER STOP .
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Modernism : T.S.Eliot (An Analysis)

Modernism : T.S.Eliot (An Analysis)

T.S. Eliot – Life


T.S . Eliot – Works and as a poet
As a classicist , his style and diction, his metrical Art .
And his followers .
Let’s know his life
T.S. Eliot is considered one of the greatest poet of twentieth century . He immensely influenced English poetry. Born in America in 1888 and came to England in 1914 . He became British citizen in 1927 .
He was influenced by French writers like Bergson who was his contemporary.
He studied philosophy in Harvard and read Indian and Sanskrit literature . Do you remember “ shantih , shantih , shantih “ somewhere he wrote . we will be discussing later.
He wrote in “ After Strange Gods” – ‘ a year in the mazes of Patanjali’s metaphysics left me in a state of Enlightened Mystification.”
If you study transcendentalism you will find it was influenced by Indian mythologies.
Lets talk a little about his profession .
He was a teacher for some time later he edited The Egoist(1917-1919) and later The Criterion.
He was awarded Nobel Prize for literature and Order of Merit in 1948
Prufrock and Other Observations :
This work got published in 1917 and he portrays boredom , emptiness and pessimism of the modern age . He used Bitter , Ironical and satirical verse to express his feelings in this work
Because of this work he emerged as an original and skilled poetic craftsman.
Poems (1920) – it was of the same mood.
The Waste Land (1922)
This is his master piece and this is considered one of the most important poetic documents of the age. It influenced the post war generation. What Milton and Virgil did for their ages , T.S. Eliot did for his age.

What is important about The Waste Land
It attempts to portray the state of civilization out of which it grows, combining essentially the history of that civilization, its present condition, and it’s understanding of life, especially understanding of God.
It was time after W.W. I
So. The waste Land shows
A desperate sense of the poet
Age’s lack of positive spiritual faith
It is not about showing the devastation of the war but it is the post-war disruption of European civilization ,
And
The emotional and spiritual sterility of modern man .
The Hollow Man (1925)
Eliot shows a terrifying exposure of the meaninglessness of life without belief .
Ash Wednesday(1930)
Marks a new phase in his own development and he finds hope in the discipline of Christian religion .

Four Quarters (1944)
This work expresses intense zeal for religious truth, which leads finally to a new hope in the Christian ideas of rebirth and renewal.
T.S. Eliot as a Poet
T.S Eliot is a classicist which is in sharp contrast to romanticism. The main impulse behind his poetry is to give a new and perfect expression to truths and commonplaces of man and his world. In The Waste Land and The Hollow Man he describes the spiritual degeneration of modern man.
Diction and Style
He is one of the highest rank holder in modernist poets not only because of his selection of subject and his theory of impersonality but also for his invention of a new poetic style. It comprehends paradox , irony and contrast.
An example from The Hollow Man
Shape without form , shade without colour
Paralysed force, gesture without motion.
It is an excellent use of paradox .
Eliot was a profound scholar , thinker and a product of diverse influences – literary, anthroplogical, philosophical impinging .
Who influenced him ?
Elizabethan dramatists
English metaphysicals
French symbolists
Imagists

Eliot’s Metrical Art
He was a great experimenter with verse and meters. He used more than forty metres. He forged new measure to express the complexity and intricacy of modern life.





See the in Four Quarters the calm abstract statement :
Time present and time past
Are both perhaps in
Time future .
And time future contained in
Time past
If all time is eternally present
All time is unredeemable.

His Importance
He gave a new direction to poetry , as Dryden had done after the Restoration and Wordsworth at the end of the eighteenth century .
His follower’s
Edith Sitwell’s the wooden pegasus(1920) and Bucolic Comedies has impact of Eliot’s style. She exposes the futility and artificiality of modern life .
Rabert Graves’s famous poem Certain Mercies exposes the spiritlessness of moden man in terse and clear language.

Kubla Khan – S.T. Coleridge

Kubla Khan – S.T. Coleridge
S. T . Coleridge composed Kubla Khan  pointing towards a sense of mystery and supernatural elements .
Few things to know about this poem
1- It was composed after a dream
2- He wants to describe the beautiful setting that he experienced in his dreams.
3- The place mentioned is Xenadu .
4- He calls the beauty Measureless to man.
5- Not only beauty of strangeness and mystery abut effect of woman wailing for her lover is added.
6- He mentions a song sung by a woman and this song motivates him to build such a great dome.
S.T Coleridge is the poet who brought mystery and supernatural elements of nature in his works . This poem is not the typical beautiful description of nature by a romantic poet , its obscure .

Some words used in the poem -  
1- sunless sea
2-sacred river
3- caverns measureless
Kubla Khan ordered to build the beautiful tomb. And such words like ‘mighty’ , ‘huge’, ‘sacred’ , tumult  make the description dream like.
He uses abrupt changes in meter.
Some other facts about poem –
Publication – 1816
The poem is considered incomplete.
Coleridge forgot the some part of the dream because of interruption.  

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